Reading List Community Currency Systems:

AKERLOF (1984), “A Theory of Social Custom, of which Unemployment May Be One Consequence”, pp69-99 in Akerlof, G. (1984), An Economic Theorist's Book of Tales, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK

Amin, A. and Thrift, N. (1995) 'Institutional issues for the European regions: from markets and plans to socioeconomics and powers of association', Economy and Society, 24(1): 41-66.

Arrow, Kenneth J., Debreu, Gerard (1954), "Existence of an Equilibrium for a Competitive Economy", Econometrica, Vol. 22, No. 3. (Jul.), pp. 265-290.

BERENTSEN, A. (2000), "Money Inventories in Search Equilibirum", Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking, Vol. 32:168-178

Black, F. (1970), "Banking and Interest Rates in a World Without Money: the Effects of Uncontrolled Banking", Journal of Bank Research, Autumn, 9-20.

Bowring, F. (1998), "LETS: An Eco-Socialist Initiative?", New Left Review, (232) 91-111 Nov-Dec

Boyle, D. (1993), What Is New Economics?, New Economics Foundation, London.

Boyle, D. (1993) "Practical theoretical money", Town and Country Planning, vol.62, no.4,pp.90-91.

BOYLE, D. (1999), Funny Money, in Search of Alternative Cash, HarperCollinsPublishers, London

Brandt, B. (1995), Whole life economics: revaluing daily life, New Society Publishers,Philadelphia.

BRAVERMAN, A. and STIGLITZ, J. (1982), “Sharecropping and the Interlinking of Agrarian Markets”, American Economic Review, 72:695-715

Brunner, Karl, and Meltzer, Allan H. (1971), "The Uses of Money: Money in the Theory of an Exchange Economy", American Economic Review, Vol. 61, No. 5. (Dec.), pp. 784-805.

Butos, W.N. (1986), "The Knowledge Problem Under Alternative Monetary Regimes", Cato Journal, 5: (3) 849-871 WIN 1986

Caldwell, Caron (1999), "Why Do People Join Local Exchange Trading Systems?", International Journal of Community Currency Research (Vol. 3)

Cavalcanti, R.D., Wallace, N. (1999), "Inside And Outside Money As Alternative Media Of Exchange", Journal Of Money Credit And Banking, 31: (3) 443-457, Part 2 AUG

CLOWER, Robert (1967) "A Reconsideration of the Microeconomic Foundations of Macroeconomic Theory.", Western Economic Journal, Vol. 6, pp. 1-8

Clower, Robert W. (1977), "The Anatomy of Monetary Theory", American Economic Review, Vol. 67, No. 1, Papers and Proceedings of the Eighty-ninth Annual Meeting of the American Economic Assocation, Feb., 1977

CLOWER, Robert and Howitt, Peter (1996), "Taking Markets Seriously: Groundwork for a Post- Walrasian Macroeconomics," in Colander, David (1996 ed.), Beyond Microfoundations: Post Walrasian Macroeconomics. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

COHEN-MITCHELL, T (2000). “A Brief History of Community Currencies”, (Last accessed: 2000-11-26)

COLANDER, David (1996), ed., Beyond Microfoundations: Post Walrasian Macroeconomics, Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Commander S. and Seabright p. (2000), “Conclusion: What is to be Done?”, pp362-374 in Seabright, P. (2000), The Vanishing Rouble: Barter Networks and Non-Monetary Transactions in Post-Soviet Societies, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK

DEMEULENAERE, Stephen (1999), "Reinventing the Market: Alternative Currencies and Community Development in Argentina", International Journal of Community Currency Research (Vol. 3)

Dauncey, G. (1988), After The Crash: The Emergence Of The Rainbow Economy, Greenprint, Basingstoke.

Dobson, A. (1990), Green Political Thought, Harper Collins, London.

Dobson, R. (1993), Bringing The Economy Home From The Market, Black Rose Books, Montreal and New York

DOWD K. and GREENAWAY, D. (1993), “Currency Competition, Network Externalities and Switching Costs: Towards an Alternative View of Optimum Currency Areas”, The Economic Journal, 103:1180-1189

Ekins, P. (1986), The Living Economy: A New Economics In The Making, Routledge, London.

ELLICKSON, R. (1991), Order Without Law: How Neighbours Settle Disputes, Harvard University Press, Cambridge

Fama, E. (1980), "Banking in the Theory of Finance", Journal of Monetary Economics, 6, 39-57

FEHR, E. and GäCHTER, S. (2000), “Fairness and Retaliation”, Journal of Economic Perspectives, 14(3):159-181.

FISHER, I, FISHER, H (1934), Mastering the Crisis, with additional chapters on stamp scrip, George Allen & Unwin Ltd, London

Galbraith, J.K. (1975), Money: Whence it came where it went, Penguin Books: New York

Galtung, J. (1986), "Towards A New Economics: On The Theory And Practice Of Self-Reliance", in Ekins, P. (1986 ed) The Living Economy: A New Economics In The Making, Routledge, London.

Glover, D. (1999), "Defending Communities - Local Exchange Trading Systems From An Environmental Perspective", Ids Bulletin-Institute Of Development Studies, 30: (3) 75-+ Jul 1999

Gran, E (1998), Green Domination In Norwegian Letsystems: Catalyst For Growth Or Constraint On Development? International Journal of Community Currency Research (Vol.2).


Granovetter, M. (1994) "Economic action and social structure: the problem of embeddedness", American Journal of Sociology, 91(3): 481-510.

GRAUWE, P de (1997), The Economics of Monetary Integration (3rd ed.), Oxford University Press, New York

GRECO, T. (1994), New Money for Healthy Communities, T. Greco Publisher, Tucson U.S.

Greenfield, R. and Yeager, L. (1983), "A Laissez-Faire Approach to Monetary Stability, Journal of Money, Credit, and Banking, 15, 302-315

GUSTAFSON, T (1999), Capitalism Russian-Style, 1999, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK

HARDIN, G (1968), "The Tragedy of the Commons", Science, 162: 1243-1248

HAYEK, F.A. (1976), Denationalisation Of Money: An Analysis of the Theory and Practice of Concurrent Currencies, Institute of Economic Affairs, UK.

HAYEK, F.A. (1976), Choice in Currency: A Way to Stop Inflation, The Institute of Economic Affairs, UK

HENNART, Jean-Francois and Erin ANDERSON (1993), "Countertrade and the Minimization of Transaction Costs: An Empirical Examination," Journal of Law, Economics and Organization, October, Vol. 9, no. 2, p. 290.

Humphrey, Caroline and Hugh-Jones, Stephen (1992), Barter, exchange, and value: an anthropological approach, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Ingleby, J (1998), "Local Exchange and Trading Systems (LETS) in Australia: a new tool for community development?", International Journal of Community Currency Research (Vol.2).

Jackson, M. (1995), "Helping Ourselves: New Zealand's Green Dollar Exchanges", ANZAC Fellowship Report, (available from M. Jackson, Dept of Geography, La Trobe University Bendigo, PO Box 199, Bendigo 3550, Victoria, Australia)

Jackson, M. (1995), "The problem of over-accumulation: examining and theorising the structural form of LETS", International Journal of Community Currency Research (Vol.1).

JEVONS, William Stanley (1875) Money and the Mechanism of Exchange, London: Appleton.

Jones, Robert A. (1976), "The Origin and Development of Media of Exchange", The Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 84, No. 4, Part 1. (Aug., 1976), pp. 757-776.

KEYNES, J. (1936), The General Theory of Employment Interest and Money, Macmillan and Co. Ltd., London

KING, R.G. (1983), "On The Economics Of Private Money", Journal Of Monetary Economics, 12: (1) 127-158

KIYOTAKI. N. and R. WRIGHT (1989) "On Money as a Medium of Exchange," Journal of Political Economy, Vol. 97, pp. 927-54.

lein, B. (1974), “The Competitive Supply Of Money”, Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 6:423-453.

Lang, P. (1994) Lets Work: rebuilding the local economy, Grover Books, Bristol.

Langseth, T. (1993) "Groenne Dollar Paa New Zealand: Lokale Penger For En Baerekraftig Utvikling, (Green Dollars In New Zealand: Local Money For A Sustainable Development)", Master's thesis, University of Oslo

Lee, R. (1996), "Moral money? LETS And The Social Construction Of Local Economic Geographies In Southeast England", Environment and Planning A, Vol 28, No 8, pp 1377 – 1394

Liesch, P. and Birch, D. (1999), “Community-based LETSystems in Australia: Localised Barter in a Sophisticated Western Economy”, International Journal of Community Currency Research, (Vol. 3)

Lietaer, b. (2001), The Future of Money: Creating New Wealth, Work and a Wiser World, Century: The Random House Group Limited, London

MAGENHEIM, Ellen and MURRELL, Peter (1988), "How to Haggle and to Stay Firm: Barter as Hidden Price Discrimination" Economic Inquiry, July, Vol 26, no. 3: 449-59.

Malinowski, Bronislaw (1967), Kula: the circulating exchange of valuables in the archipelagoes of eastern New Guinea, in Dalton, George, Tribal and peasant economies: readings in economic anthropology, Natural History Press, New York.

MARIN, Dalia and SCHNITZER, Monika (1995), "Tying Trade Flows: A Theory of Countertrade with Evidence.", American Economic Review, December, Vol. 85, no. 5, p. 1047.

Marx, K. (1859) translated (1971), “A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy, Lawrence and Wishart, London UK

Menger, Karl (1982), "On the Origin of Money", The Economic Journal, Vol. 2, No. 6. (Jun), pp. 239-255.

Mingione, Enzo, (1991), Fragmented societies: a sociology of economic life beyond the market paradigm, Basil Blackwell, Oxford.

MUNDELL, R. (1961), “A Theory of Optimum Currency Areas”, The American Economic Review, 51(4):657-665.

NEALE, C., Shipley, D. and Sercu, P. (1992), "Motives for and the Management of Countertrade in Domestic Markets", Journal of Marketing Management, 8, pp. 335-49.

NORMAN, Alfred L. (1987) "A Theory of Monetary Exchange," Review of Economic Studies, Vol. 54, no. 179, pp. 499-517.

North, P. (1999), "Explorations In Heterotopia: Local Exchange Trading Schemes (Lets) And The Micropolitics Of Money And Livelihood", Environment And Planning D-Society & Space, 17: (1) 69-86 Feb 1999

O'Doherty, R.K., Durrschmidt, J., Jowers, P., et al. (1999), "Local Exchange And Trading Schemes: A Useful Strand Of Community Economic Development Policy?", Environment And Planning, 31: (9) 1639-1653 SEP 1999

Offe, C. and Heinze, R. (1992), Beyond Employment: Time, Work And The Informal Economy, Polity Press, Cambridge UK

OSTROM, E. (1990), Governing the Commons: the Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge UK

Ostroy, Joseph M. (1973), "The Informational Efficiency of Monetary Exchange", The American Economic Review, Vol. 63, No. 4. (Sep.), pp. 597-610.

Ostroy, Joseph M., Starr, Ross M. (1974), "Money and the Decentralization of Exchange", Econometrica, Vol. 42, No. 6. (Nov.), pp. 1093-1114.

Pacione, M. (1999), "The Other Side Of The Coin: Local Currency As A Response To The Globalization Of Capital", Regional Studies, 33: (1) 63-72 Feb

Pacione, M. (1998), "Toward A Community Economy - An Examination Of Local Exchange Trading Systems In West Glasgow", Urban Geography, 19: (3) 211-231 Apr

Pacione, M. (1997), "Local Exchange Trading Systems As A Response To The Globalisation Of Capitalism", Urban Studies, 34: (8) 1179-1199 Jul

Pearce, J. (1993), At The Heart Of The Community Economy: Community Enterprise In A Changing World, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, London

RABIN, R. (1998), “Psychology and Economics”, Journal of Economic Literature, 36:11-46

ROSSER, J. Barkley (1996), "Chaos Theory and Post Walrasian Macroeconomics." in David Colander, (1996 ed.), Post Walrasian Macroeconomics, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Sahlins, Marshall, (1974), Stone age economics, Tavistock Publications, London.

Scialom, L. (1995), "Competitive Payment Systems - A Critical-Point Of View", Revue Economique, 46: (1) 35-55 JAN

Seron, Sidonie (1995), "Local exchange and trading systems", unpublished minor Masters thesis, Departement des Langues Etrangeres Appliquees, Universite de Bourgogne, Dijon.

Seyfang, G. (1994), "The Local Exchange Trading System: political economy and social audit", Msc thesis, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia.

Seyfang, Gill (1996), "Examining Local Currency Systems: a social audit approach", International Journal of Community Currency Research, (Vol.1).

SMITH, A. (1776), An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, reprint with introduction from K. Sunderland (1993), Oxford University Press, Oxford

Sontheimer, K. (1972), "On the Determination of Money Prices", Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Vol. 4, No. 3. (Aug.), pp. 489-508.

Soutar, Angus (1996), "Re: Fiscal Policy", a contribution to the econ-lets Internet discussion group, 22/3/96.

STARR, Ross M. (1989), General Equilibrium Models of Monetary Economies: Studies in the Static Foundations of Monetary Theory, San Diego: Academic Press.

Starr, Ross M. (1972), "The Structure of Exchange in Barter and Monetary Economies", Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 86, No. 2. (May), pp. 290-302.

STIGLITZ, J. and WEISS, A. (1981), “Credit Rationing in Markets with Imperfect Information”, The American Economic Review, 71:393-410.

STODDER, James (1995a) "The Evolution of Complexity in Primitive Economies: Theory," Journal of Comparative Economics, Vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 1-31.

STODDER, James (1995b) "The Evolution of Complexity in Primitive Economies: Empirical Tests," Journal of Comparative Economics, Vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 190-210.

Stodder, J. (1998), "Corporate Barter and Economic Stabilisation", International Journal of Community Currency Research, (Vol.2).

SWEENEY, J. and SWEENEY, R. (1977), “Monetary Theory and the Great Capitol Hill Baby Sitting Co-op Crisis”, Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 9:86-89

TAVLAS, G. (1993), "The ‘New’ Theory of Optimum Currency Areas", World Economy, 16: 663-685

TULLOCK, G. (1975), “Competing Monies”, Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, 7:491-497.

VAUBEL, R. (1984), "The Governments Money Monopoly - Externalities Or Natural Monopoly", Kyklos, 37: (1) 27-58 1984

WEBER, E. (1988), “Currency Competition in Switzerland, 1826-1850”, Kyklos, 41:459-478

White, Lawrence H. (1984), "Competitive Payments Systems and the Unit of Account", The American Economic Review, Vol. 74, No. 4. (Sep.), pp. 699-712.

Williams, C.C. (1995a), "Trading favours in Calderdale", Town and Country Planning, vol.64,pp.214-215.

Williams, C. C. (1995b), "The Emergence Of Local Currencies", Town And Country Planning, Vol 64, No 12, pp 329-332

Williams, C. C. (1996a), "The New Barter Economy: An Appraisal Of Local Exchange And Trading Systems (LETS)", Journal Of Public Policy, Vol 16, No 1, pp 85-101

Williams, C. C. (1996b), "Informal Sector Responses To Unemployment: An Evaluation Of The Potential Of Local Exchange Trading Systems (LETS)", Work, Employment And Society, Vol 10, No 2, pp 341-359

Williams, C. C. (1996c), "Local Exchange And Trading Systems: A New Source Of Work And Credit For The Poor And Unemployed?", Environment and Planning A, Vol 28, No 8, pp 1395-1415

Williams, C. C. (1996d), "Local Currencies And Community Development: An Evaluation Of Green Dollar Exchanges In New Zealand", Community Development Journal, Vol 31, No 4, pp 319 - 329

Williams, C. C. (1996e), "An Appraisal Of Local Exchange And Trading Systems In The United Kingdom", Local Economy, Vol 11, No 3, pp 259-266

Williams, Colin C. C., (1997) Local Exchange And Trading Systems (LETS) In Australia: A New Tool For Community Development?, International Journal of Community Currency Research, (Vol.1).

ZHOU, R. (1998), "Individual and Aggregate Real Balances in a Random-Matching Model", Research Department Staff Report 222, Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.